Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar Press. Capra, F. The web of life: A new scientific understanding of living systems. New York: Anchor Books. Cheng, Y. Language Learning, 49 , — Cilliers, P. Boundaries, hierarchies, and networks in complex systems.
A dynamic systems theory approach to second language acquisition. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 10 , 7— Dynamic systems theory as a comprehensive theory of second language development. Del, P. Mayo, M. Philadelphia: John Benjamins. Dewaele, J. Effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals: A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58 4 , — Talk at work: Interaction in institutional settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Elkhafaifi, H.
Listening comprehension and anxiety in the Arabic language classroom. Emotion and self-theory. Haviland Eds. New York: Guilford Press. Fredrickson, B. The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91 , — Gardner, R. Integrative motivation: Changes during a yearlong intermediate level language course. Language Learning, 54 , 1— Gregersen, T.
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Modern Language Journal, 70 , — Foreign language anxiety. Cassady Ed. New York: Peter Lang. Hotho, S. A comparative examination of classroom factors in second language settings. Foreign Language Annals, 33 , — Humphries, R. Language anxiety in international students. Kitano, K. Anxiety in the College Japanese Language Classroom. Interdisciplinarity and complexity: An evolving relationship. Kuhn, L. Complexity and educational research: A critical reflection. Applied linguistics, 18 2 , — Classroom-oriented research from a complex systems perspective. Reflecting on the cognitive—social debate in second language acquisition.
Modern Language Journal, 91 , — Complex systems and applied linguistics. New York: Oxford University Press. Liu, M. Methods and results in the study of anxiety and language learning: A review of the literature. Language Learning, 41 1 , 85— The subtle effects of language anxiety on cognitive processing in the second language. Language Learning, 44 2 , — Emotions that facilitate language learning: The positive—broadening power of the imagination. Life in schools: An introduction to critical pedagogy in the foundations of education.
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Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Sue Leather. Oxford Academic. Cite Citation. This includes listening, speaking, reading, and writing about content in a specific subject area, for example reading about a particular event in history or discussing a new mathematical concept.
In activities related to academic work, clues that help decide meaning are often reduced or absent. For example, a passage in a textbook may not include any pictures to support what learners are expected to read. Language also becomes more complex, and new ideas, concepts and language are all presented to students at the same time. Academic language also requires deeper thinking skills, such as comparing, classifying, analysing, evaluating and inferring.
As learners progress through school, they are increasingly expected to use language in situations where they cannot rely on context and which are cognitively demanding. Academic language is sometimes referred to as CALP cognitive academic language proficiency. Scaffolding The theory of ' social constructivism ' says that people learn mainly through social interaction with others, such as a teacher or other students.
One social constructivist, Lev Vygotsky — , developed the idea of the zone of proximal development. Celeris Publishing Group, Incorporated , 1 mai - pages. What happens when the ordinary become not so ordinary? Caitlin and Leah are content with the slow and steady pace in their small Texan town. They have the typical challenges of any American high school — evil girl cliques and oppressive ex-boyfriends. They see themselves as painfully ordinary…but that soon changes. The arrival of two newcomers at school sets Caitlin and Leah on an explosive path of magic, betrayal, secrets and forbidden love.
Caitlin must learn to embrace her birthright and trust in her friends or she risks endangering them all.